With In-Text Citation, you are directing your reader to the list of books which you cited in your Reference page, in as clear and concise a manner as possible. The following is a list of commonly used in-text citations.
While there are certain physical clues to indicate a teenager might suffer from bulimia, “the patient who has bulimia may be a difficult one to diagnose” (Lopez, 2010, p. 113).
|(Author’s Last Name, date, Page Number)|
Dr. Ralph I. Lopez (2010), a pioneer in the field of adolescent medicine, notes that since the patient with bulimia is difficult to identify physically, that at times “the only way is to catch them in the act” (p. 113).
|*If the author is mentioned in your quotation or lead in sentence, give the publication date after the name and only the page number after the quotation.|
Two or More Authors
In dealing with the “thorny issue” of labeling genetically modified foods, experts suggest one solution is to “label foods not according to the process by which they were produced, but according to the contents of the final product” (Schwarcz & Berkoffm, 1998, p. 200).
|(Author’s Last Name & Author’s Last Name, date of publication, page.)|
(Schwarcz et al., 1999)
|*For more than three authors, use the first author’s last name, followed by the abbreviation “et al.” and then the page.|
Different Authors With the Same Last Name
(J. Harris 2010; T. Harris 2009)
|(Initial of First Name._Last Name, Date; initial of second author’s first name._ second author’s last name, date)|
Two or More Works by the Same Author
In his investigation of social identity, The uses of disorder, Richard Sennett (2007) defines adulthood as a stage where people “learn to tolerate painful ambiguity and uncertainty” (p. 108).
In a surprising move, Sennett (2009) combines the idea of power with that of virtue: “the idea of strength is complex in ordinary life because of what might be called the element of its integrity” (p. 19).
|(Title, author, date, page)|
Group or Corporate Authors
According to Toyota Team Europe (1989) the champion of the World Rally Championship six times and famous across Europe beyond any team before was…
example:No Author Given
In spite of the changes to the traditional circus, “the popularity of circuses has remained steady and should remain so for the next 10 years” (“Circus performers”, 2006, p. 62).
(Title, date, page number)
(example:Source Within a Source
As Erickson reminds us, the early psychoanalysts focused on a single objective: “introspective honesty in the service of self enlightenment” (as cited in Weiland, 2002, p. 42).
|(as cited_in_Secondary Author’s Last Name_Page Number)|
Electronic Sources/ Web Page
Jones (2010) writes that Abraham Lincoln’s birthplace was designated as a National Historical Site in 1959 (“National Park Service”).
Abraham Lincoln’s birthplace was designated as a National Historical Site in 1959 (“National Park Service,” n.d.).
|*Internet citations follow the style of printed works. Personal or corporate author, date and page number should be given if they exist on the website. If not given, omit and give site name and n.d. for no date.|