In-text Citation

With In-Text Citation, you are directing your reader to the list of books which you cited in your Works Cited, in as clear and concise a manner as possible. The following is a list of commonly used in-text citations.

Single Author


While there are certain physical clues to indicate a teenager might suffer from bulimia, “the patient who has bulimia may be a difficult one to diagnose” (Lopez 113).
(Author’s Last Name_Page Number)

Dr. Ralph I. Lopez, a pioneer in the field of adolescent medicine, notes that since the patient with bulimia is difficult to identify physically, that at times “the only way is to catch them in the act” (113).
*If the author is mentioned in your quotation or lead in sentence, give only the page number.

Two or More Authors

In dealing with the “thorny issue” of labeling genetically modified foods, experts suggest one solution is to “label foods not according to the process by which they were produced, but according to the contents of the final product” (Schwarcz and Berkoff 190).
(Author’s Last Name and Author’s Last Name_Page Number)
(Schwarcz et al. 190)
*For more than three authors, use the first author’s last name, followed by the abbreviation “et al.”

Different Authors With the Same Last Name

(J. Harris 39) (T. Harris 62)
(Initial of First Name._Last Name_Page Number)

Two or More Works by the Same Author

In his investigation of social identity, The Uses of Disorder, Sennett defines adulthood as a stage where people “learn to tolerate painful ambiguity and uncertainty” (108).

In a surprising move, Richard Sennett combines the idea of power with that of virtue: “the idea of strength is complex in ordinary life because of what might be called the element of its integrity” (Authority 19).
(Title of Work_Page Number)

Group or Corporate Authors

In the eighties, Toyota Team Europe was champion of the World Rally Championship six times and famous across Europe (Toyota 354).
(Group Title_Page Number)

No Author Given
In spite of the changes to the traditional circus, “the popularity of circuses has remained steady and should remain so for the next 10 years” (“Circus Performers” 62).
(Short Form of Title_Page Number in quotation marks)

Source Within a Source

As Erickson reminds us, the early psychoanalysts focused on a single objective: “introspective honesty in the service of self enlightenment” (qtd. in Weiland 42).
(Original Author’s Last Name_qtd._in_Secondary Author’s Last Name_Page Number)

Work from an Anthology

Lawrence Rosenfield analyzes the way in which New York’s Central Park held a socializing function for nineteenth-century residents similar to that of traditional republican civic oratory (222).

(Actual Author of the Work Cited _Page Number)

Web Page/ on-line Database

example of on- line article with author but no page number:

As the government set up the Dionne babies in Quintland, the “irony of saving them from exploitation in Chicago to exploit them in Ontario seemed to go unnoticed” (Bonikowsky).

example of sites with no personal author or page number:

Some celebrities use their Twitter fanbase for good, like teen Justin Bieber, who has brought “countless teen volunteers in to the habit of helping raise money and awareness for a variety of causes” (“Bieber Fever”).

Abraham Lincoln’s birthplace was designated as a National Historical Site in 1959 (National Park Service).

*Internet citations follow the style of printed works. Personal or corporate author and page number should be given if they exist on the website. If not given, omit and give a shorten form of the article title or site name.

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